Saraswati is an ancient river that flowed in northern India during the vedic era. It originated in the Himalayas and flowed westwards to join the Arabian sea. It was earlier thought to be a mythological river that existed only in the vedas.
But recent discoveries have proved that this river did indeed exist during the vedic era about 6000 years back!! The aerial photos from NASA and ISRO satellites have revealed the dried up river bed and geological excavations have proved the same.
This river was a river even bigger than river Sindh (Indus). Indus valley civilization as an ancient Indian civlization of around 1500 BC is now actually replaced by a Saraswati valley civilization which dates back by thousands of years into the past than the mohen jo daro, harappa based Indus valley civilization.
Vedas were not compiled during the Indus valley civilization which is said to have existed during 1500 BC. Instead the Indus valley civilization itself looks like the last leg of an even more mightier civilization that existed thousands of year before 1500 BC !!
The proof is that Saraswati river dried up about 5000 years back!! Vedas nowhere mention Indus (Sindhu) river, instead vedas are full of praise for the Saraswati river that flowed during the contemporary period of the vedas!
A Rigvedic hymn says Ambitame Naditame Devitame Saraswati which means Oh Saraswati, you are the best of mothers, you are the best of rivers, you are the best of goddesses
When the Saraswati river flowed, the current desert of Rajasthan was a green land full of vegetation. The existing rivers Sutlej and Yamuna were major sources of the Saraswati river during the vedic era. The plate tectonics of the Indian plate with the eurasian plate caused geological shifts in the Himalayan region around 6000 years ago and caused the Sutlej river to be diverted to join Indus river and similarly Yamuna joined river Ganga to create the present Ganga-Yamuna plain.
This caused the Saraswati river to dry up as its major sources of water were lost. In addition, Indus which was a smaller river till then became a bigger river due to the inclusion of water from Sutlej. Sutlej was called Shatadru or Sutudri during the vedic period.
The finding of Saraswati river also disproves the Aryan Invasion Theory. In fact the proof of existence of Saraswati river is a death blow to the aryan invasion theory. Aryan invasion theory states that Aryans who originally lived in central asia migrated to India in around 1500 BC attacking the local dravidians and moving them further south of India.
Nothing can be more stupid than the Aryan invasion theory. Nowhere in the ancient vedas is the word Arya used to denote a race. Arya in sanskrit means a gentleman! It is used as a respectful term similar to Mr used in English today. It was Max Muller who first put forward this theory with a prejudice towards the vedas and in the later years was criticized by many sanskrit and vedic experts as a person who knew very little sanskrit and nothing about vedas!!! In his last years he apologized on it and said in 1888
I have declared again and again that if I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair, nor skull; I mean simply those who speak an Aryan languageto me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar (Max Muller, Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas, 1888, pg 120)
But by then the damage had been done and Britishers started riding piggy back on this theory to create a divide between north and south India! All Indian languages including the Dravidian languages have originated from Sanskrit and any person with a bit of common sense and who knows one of the Dravidian languages and a bit of Sanskrit can easily identify the similarities! Can this have happened if Dravidians and Aryans were different races altogether!
The Saraswati river findings have busted the myth of an Aryan invasion. Which in turn proves that there was only one civilization in ancient India which was the vedic civilization and Sanskrit was their language, Saraswati was their river, there were no separate races called Aryan or Dravidian, instead there was one Vedic era.
See The Myth of the Aryan Invasion Theory for more details.
Here is a cool documentary posted on youtube on the research and excavations related to Saraswati river. I apologize for the poor quality, but still it is worth watching for those interested in gaining more knowledge about our past