Disclaimer: Trying to be as non-technical as possible, requires basic physics at the level of quantum mechanics and relativity :)
Unlike other physicists, Einstein developed almost the complete theory of relativity based on this thought experiments. In other words, he carried out the experiments of his theory in his mind! He set up the required experimental setup, conducted the experiments and then deduced the results, all within his mind! Just like how an ancient Indian vedic rishi/saint used to do!!
Which is why it looks like Einstein got things always right. Because by thinking within than looking out, probably he was unknowingly conversing directly with the ultimate universal consciousness!
As we all are aware, the two fundamental theories of the modern physics, quantum mechanics and general relativity disagree with each other on a quantum scale!
Einstein completely architected the general theory, and made a significant contribution to the development of quantum theory by his photon concept. Yet, when the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics came into picture, Einstein rejected the concept with his famous statement, God does not play dice !
From then onwards, Einstein tried in every possible way to prove the quantum mechanics wrong, including the famous EPR experiment, which was however used by Bell’s theorem to show that quantum mechanics indeed is against classical common sense!
Everybody knew that quantum mechanics worked very well in its domain, which is of the micro subatomic level. General relativity worked very well in its own domain, which is of the macro cosmological level. But general relativity unlike quantum mechanics, can also be extended to a micro subatomic level to describe the local space time at that level.
This is where the clash between the two theories sets in. Quantum theory describes an unruly space-time structure at this level called the quantum foam, and general theory of relativity disagrees on that!
Who is right? Einstein or quantum physicists? Till today not a single experiment has proved general theory of relativity wrong!
But, it was pretty sure that to complete the picture, one of the theories had to be altered. But which one? General theory of relativity of Einstein or the Quantum Mechanics?
Ancient Indian Vedic texs describe the vibration OM as the beginning of the universe, as the primordial vibration, and that everything that exists in this universe comes from this vibration! It is said to be the vibrating form of the ultimate universal consciousness .
The katha upanishad says that, he who knows the real meaning of OM knows everything!
OM is the most sacred vedic mantra/hymn and is a combination of OM=a+u+ma where a (a as in around) represents the state of being awake, u (u as in universe) represents the state of sleep with dreams, and ma (mo as in mother) represents the dreamless deep sleep state. OM being a combination of all these, is said to be the true consciousness which lies beyond the three states and is said to be experienced after the silence that follows in between while continuously reciting OM. This true consciousness experienced beyond the three defined states above, is not another fourth state of consciousness, but actually is the consciousness itself!
Mandukya Upanishad (which belongs to the Atharva Veda) is all about OM. Another upanishad Muktikopanishad (which is about all other upanishads) says that understanding Mandukya Upanishad is the same as understanding all the 108 Upanishads!
In other words, understanding the fundamental vibration OM is the understanding of all!
The modern String theory describes the entire universe to be made up of vibrating strings! There are no point particles in string theory, but only one dimensional vibrating structures called strings (which can be thought of similar to vibrating guitar/violin strings). Different modes of vibration of these strings is perceived by us as different particles! In other words, for instance a quark is nothing but an electron, but whose string is vibrating differently!
So finally there is only one particle, a String, and this string vibrates.. OM
NOTE: String theory as originally devised to explain strong nuclear force interactions only takes bosons or force carrier particles into consideration, where as the super string theory which provides a complete picture considers all particles in the universe, i,e both bosons as well as fermions, fermions being matter particles like electrons, protons, etc.
String theory solves one major problem of quantum mechanics, the one that of infinities. The quantum particles being point like particles, can interact at zero distances, and this used to create infinites in quantum mechanics, because of things like division by zero in the equations.
And physicists used to overcome these infinities by doing certain mathematical circus called normalization!
But string theory does not have this problem, because strings are NOT point like but have a dimensional length, and hence do not create infinities.
But there is something more important here which many people are missing.
The fact that Strings have a length means that, they define a unit of minimum measurable length !
Because there is nothing smaller than a string. String is the smallest thing in the universe. Which means we cannot measure anything to a length smaller than the length of a string. And this length of the string which is on a Planck’s scale, is larger than the length below which the uncertainty described by quantum mechanics peeps into.
In other words, the uncertainty principle was never required in the first place. It was an imaginary miscalculation necessitated by the quantum mechanical misnomer of point particles! The very fact that there was so minimum physical limit for quantum mechanical point particles, meant that going beyond the physical limit existing in the universe, which was actually wrong!
Because, the concept of point particles (which are of course/can be smaller than true physical strings) meant that we were trying to measure the length at a scale smaller than our unit of measurement! In other words, it was like trying to measure length in millimeters, using a scale which has readings only upto centimeters! centimeter here is the length of a string, which is the smallest existing physical length, and millimeters is like a point particle which in reality doesnt exist at all!
So the uncertain principle of quantum mechanics was unnecessary in the first place, and was actually a product of trying to imagine things beyond existence!
Or in other words, Einstein was right in being certain that uncertainty does not exist! God DOES NOT play dice! Because Einstein had already spoken to the ultimate consciousness via his inward thought experiments!
So, it is the quantum mechanics that has been changed in the string theory, not the general relativity!!
Einstein wins again!
I wonder why this is not highlighted in any of the scientific discussions. If string theory is correct, then it is the quantum mechanics that needs a change, not general relativity. And what’s the change? Well, it is not to try to do anything at a level smaller than the length of a string. Uncertainty arises only when we try to do things on paper which in reality don’t exist/not possible!
In fact, general relativity was even more intelligent enough when Einstein published it, because it also predicts its own breakdown at a singularity! In other words, relativity theory is pretty well defined.
Might it be that the physicists are waiting for some experimental evidence to support super string theory (like the evidence for super symmetry etc) , before declaring Einstein the winner?
If string theory is correct, then the uncertainty principle does not exist, because one cannot measure things at a length smaller than the length of a string!
Note that I am not saying that the uncertainty principle is wrong, because its mathematics is indeed correct. But its simply that there is no need for this principle, as the subatomic scale required for its SCOPE, simply does NOT exist in nature!
By the way, one of my favorite Einstein quotes on relativity:
Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. THATS relativity.